New imaging methods of electronmicroscopy

 New imagingmethods of electronmicroscopy enable us to collectmore effectively complex data about thematerial in question,whichmeans data about chemical composition and crystalline and electronic structure.Microscopywith slowbackscattered electrons,whichwere emitted under high ngles with respect to the surface normal and therefore are not detected in the standard microscopes, offer substantially extended information contents.

If all emitted particles are acquired, imaging of a polycrystalline material with backscattered electrons at energies in hundreds of eV provides high contrast of crystalline grains and even visualizes at high resolution the distribution of internal strain and local deformations.

When reducing the landing energy of electrons belowsome 30 eV, their reflectance becomes inversely proportional to the local density of electronic states, which is characteristic for the crystalline systemand its spatial orientation. Thus, the energy dependence of the reflectance can serve to fingerprinting
orientation of a crystalline grain.